HPA. Guidance on the diagnosis and management of PVL-associated Staphylococcus aureus infections (PVL-SA) in England. 2nd Edition. 2008. https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/panton-valentine-leukocidin-pvl-guidance-data-and-analysis Accessed 23.09.14. RATIONALE: Expert opinion based on review of the literature and experiences of colleagues in the UK, Europe, the USA, and Canada.
Holmes A, Ganner M, McGuane S, Pitt TL, Cookson BD, Kearns AM. Staphylococcus aureus isolates carrying Panton-Valentine Leucocidin genes in England and Wales: frequency, characterization, and association with clinical disease. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43: 2384–90. RATIONALE: In this study the Staphylococcus Reference Unit tested 515 UK isolates of S. aureus for PVL and 8 (1.6%) were positive for the PVL locus. A further 470 isolates were selected to explore the association of PVL-positive S. aureus with clinical disease. Of these, 23 (4.9%) were PVL positive and most were associated with skin and soft tissue infections (especially abscesses in which 7 of 16,45% were positive). The PVL genes were also detected in isolates responsible for community-acquired pneumonia, burn infections, bacteraemia, and scalded skin syndrome.